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Browse our growing collection of definitions that you may find useful to further your understanding of particular concepts and topics:

AAS Congruence

AAS Congruence or angle angle side congruence is when two triangles have corresponding angles and sides that are congruent as shown in the image below, the triangles are congruent.

AA Similarity

AA Similarity or angle angle similarity means when two triangles have corresponding angles that are congruent as shown in the image below, the triangles are similar.

Abscissa

In mathematics, the abscissa and the ordinate are respectively the first and second coordinates of a point in a coordinate system. The abscissa is the first coordinate in an ordered pair and the ordinate is the second coordinate.

Absolute Value

The absolute value or modulus of a real number x, denoted |x|, is the non-negative value of x without regard to its sign.

Accuracy

Accuracy is how close an approximation is to an actual value. In other terms, in measurement of a set, accuracy refers to closeness of the measurements to a specific value, while precision refers to the closeness of the measurements to each other.

Acute Angle

An acute angle is an angle that has a measure less than π2 radians or 90° degrees.

Acute Triangle

An acute triangle (or acute angled triangle) is a triangle in which all three interior angles are acute angles (less than π2 radians or 90 degrees).

Algorithm

An algorithm is a specific set of instructions for carrying out a procedure or solving a problem, usually with the requirement that the procedure terminate at some point.

Alpha (Α, α)

Alpha (Α, α) is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek Numerals, it has a value of 1.

Alphabet

An alphabet is a set (usually only letters) from which a subset is derived. A sequence of letters is called a word, and a set of words is called a code.

Alphametic

A alphametic is a cryptarithmetic (number puzzle) where the letters used to represent distinct digits are derived from related words or meaningful phrases.

Alternating Series

An alternating series is a series which alternates between positive and negative terms.

Altitude

Altitude otherwise referred to as height is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more). For mathematics altitude is the shortest distance between the base of a geometric figure and its top, whether that top is an opposite vertex, an apex, or another base.

Altitude of a Cone

The altitude or height of a cone is the distance from the apex of a cone to its base. It is the shortest line segment between the apex of a cone and the (possibly extended) base. Altitude can also be used to refer to the specific length of this segment.

Altitude of a Cylinder

The altitude or height of a cylinder is the distance between the bases of a cylinder. It is the shortest line segment between the (possibly extended) bases. Altitude can also be used to refer to the specific length of this segment.

Altitude of a Parallelogram

The altitude or height of a parallelogram is the distance between opposite sides of a parallelogram. It is the shortest line segment between opposite sides. Altitude can also be used to refer to the specific length of this segment.

Altitude of a Prism

The altitude or height of a prism is the distance between the two bases of a prism. It is the shortest line segment between the (possibly extended) bases. Altitude can also be used to refer to the specific length of this segment.

Altitude of a Pyramid

The altitude or height of a pyramid is the distance from the apex to the base of a pyramid. It is the shortest line segment between the apex of a pyramid and the (possibly extended) base.

Altitude of a Trapezoid

The altitude or height of a trapezoid is the distance between the two bases of a trapezoid. It is the shortest line segment between the bases. Altitude can also be used to refer to the specific length of this segment.

Altitude of a Triangle

The altitude or height of a triangle is the distance between a vertex of a triangle and the opposite side. It is the shortest line segment between a vertex of a triangle and the (possibly extended) opposite side.

Annulus

A annulus or washer is the region between two concentric circles which have different radii. The area of a annulus = π (R2 − r2)

Apex

An apex is the vertex of an isosceles triangle having an angle different from the two equal angles. An apex can also be the common vertex at the top of a figure like a pyramid or of a cone.

ARC

ARC an abbreviation of average rate of change is the change in the value of a quantity divided by the elapsed time. For a function, this is the change in the y-value (Δy) divided by the change in the x-value (Δx) for two distinct points on the graph.

Area of a Circle

The area of a circle is calculated using the formula: A = πr2 where r represents the circles radius.

Area of an Ellipse

The area of an ellipse is calculated using a formula similar to that of a circle. For an ellipse with a semi-major and semi-minor axes the formula is: A = πxy where x represents the ellipses semi-major axes and y represents the semi-minor axis of the ellipse.

Area of an Equilateral Triangle

The area of an equilateral triangle is calculated using the formula: A = s2 3 4 where s represents the equilateral triangles common side length.

Argand Plane

The argand plane otherwise known as the complex plane, z-plane or gauss plane is a geometric representation of the complex numbers established by the real axis and the perpendicular imaginary axis.

Arithmetic

Arithmetic is a branch of mathematics dealing with integers or, more generally, numerical computation. Arithmetic operations include addition, congruence calculation, division, factorization, multiplication, power computation, root extraction, subtraction, logarithms, and calculations involving modulo n.

Average

An average is a single number taken as representative of a list of numbers. Different concepts of average are used in different contexts.

Average Rate of Change

Average rate of change or ARC is the change in the value of a quantity divided by the elapsed time. For a function, this is the change in the y-value (Δy) divided by the change in the x-value (Δx) for two distinct points on the graph.

Beta (Β, β)

Beta (Β, β) is the second letter of the Greek Alphabet. In the system of Greek Numerals, it has a value of 2.

Bidimensional Space

Bidimensional space otherwise referred to as two dimensional space is a geometric setting in which two values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (a point).

Box Product

Box product otherwise referred to as scalar triple product, mixed product and triple scalar product is a method of multiplying three 3-dimensional vectors, usually euclidean vectors in which the resulting product is a scalar.

Chi (Χ, χ)

Chi (Χ, χ) is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet, used to represent the ch sound (as in Scottish loch or German Bauch) in Ancient and Modern Greek. In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 600.

Chord

A chord of a circle is a straight line segment on the interior of a circle whose endpoints both lie on that circle. The infinite line extension of a chord is a secant line, or just secant.

Circumference

Circumference may be defined by some as the distance around the outside of an arbitrary closed object (sometimes restricted to a closed curved object).

Collinear

In geometry, collinearity of a set of points is the property of their lying on a single line. A set of points with this property is said to be collinear (sometimes spelled as colinear).

Complex Plane

The complex plane otherwise known as the argand plane, z-plane or gauss plane is a geometric representation of the complex numbers established by the real axis and the perpendicular imaginary axis.

Compression

A compression or contraction is a transformation in which a figure grows smaller. Compressions may be with respect to a point (compression of a geometric figure) or with respect to the axis of a graph (compression of a graph).

Concurrent

Concurrent refers to when two or more lines or curves all intersect at a single point.

Conversion Period

Conversion period is the span of time between interest payments.

Deciles

A decile is any of the nine values that divide the sorted data into ten equal parts, so that each part represents one tenth of the sample or population. A decile is one possible form of a quantile.

Delta (Δ, δ)

Delta (Δ, δ) is the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 4.

Diameter

Diameter is a line segment connecting two points on a circle or sphere which pass through the center. Diameter is also used to refer to the specific length of this line segment.

Difference

Difference is the result of subtracting two expressions or numbers (n1 - n2), where the minus sign denotes the subtraction. For instance, the difference between 5 and 3 is 5 – 3, which equals 2.

Digimetic

A digimetic is a cryptarithmetic (number puzzle) where some digits are used to represent or replace other digits.

Dilemma

A dilemma is a situation in which a decision must be reached from a set of several alternative decisions where none of them is clearly more optimal than the other.

Endecagon

A endecagon otherwise referred to as a undecagon, hendecagon or 11-gon in geometry is an eleven sided polygon.

Epsilon (Ε, ε)

Epsilon (Ε, ε) or lunate ϵ or Greek: έψιλον, is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, corresponding phonetically to a mid front unrounded vowel /e/. In the system of Greek numerals it also has the value five.

Equidistant

A point is said to be equidistant from a set of objects if the distances between that point and each object in the set are equal.

Eta (Η, η)

Eta (Η, η) is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet. Originally denoting a consonant /h/, its sound value in the classical Attic dialect of Ancient Greek was a long vowel [ɛː], raised to [i] in hellenistic Greek, a process known as iotacism.

Event

An event is a certain subset of a probability space. Events are therefore collections of outcomes on which probabilities have been assigned.

Fixed

Fixed means that the object is regarded as fixed in the plane so that it may not be picked up and flipped if referring to a planar object. As a result, mirror images are not necessarily equivalent for fixed objects.

Gamma (Γ, γ)

Gamma (Γ, γ) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 3.

Googol

A googol is a large number equal to 10102 or 10100. In other terms, the digit 1 with 100 zeros following it. Written out explicitly, 10,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000,​000.

Googolplex

Googolplex is a large number equal to 1010100 or 10Googol. In other terms, the digit 1 with a googol (10100) number of zeros following it.

Greek Alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was the first alphabetic script in history to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants.

Greek Numerals

Greek numerals, also known as Ionic, Ionian, Milesian, or Alexandrian numerals, are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet.

Height

Height otherwise referred to as altitude is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more). For mathematics height is the shortest distance between the base of a geometric figure and its top, whether that top is an opposite vertex, an apex, or another base.

Height of a Cone

The height or altitude of a cone is the distance from the apex of a cone to its base. It is the shortest line segment between the apex of a cone and the (possibly extended) base. Height can also be used to refer to the specific length of this segment.

Height of a Cylinder

The height or altitude of a cylinder is the distance between the bases of a cylinder. It is the shortest line segment between the (possibly extended) bases. Height can also be used to refer to the specific length of this segment.

Height of a Parallelogram

The height or altitude of a parallelogram is the distance between opposite sides of a parallelogram. It is the shortest line segment between opposite sides. Height can also be used to refer to the specific length of this segment.

Height of a Prism

The height or altitude of a prism is the distance between the two bases of a prism. It is the shortest line segment between the (possibly extended) bases. Height can also be used to refer to the specific length of this segment.

Height of a Pyramid

The height or altitude of a pyramid is the distance from the apex to the base of a pyramid. It is the shortest line segment between the apex of a pyramid and the (possibly extended) base.

Height of a Trapezoid

The height or altitude of a trapezoid is the distance between the two bases of a trapezoid. It is the shortest line segment between the bases. Height can also be used to refer to the specific length of this segment.

Height of a Triangle

The height or altitude of a triangle is the distance between a vertex of a triangle and the opposite side. It is the shortest line segment between a vertex of a triangle and the (possibly extended) opposite side.

Hendecagon

A hendecagon otherwise referred to as a undecagon, endecagon or 11-gon in geometry is an eleven sided polygon. The name hendecagon, from Greek hendeka which means eleven and gon meaning corner, is often preferred to the hybrid undecagon, whose first part is formed from Latin term undecim for eleven.

Higher Quartile

The higher quartile given a set of data, is a number for which 75% of the data is less than that number. The higher quartile is the same as the median of the part of the data which is greater than the median.

High Quartile

The high quartile given a set of data, is a number for which 75% of the data is less than that number. The high quartile is the same as the median of the part of the data which is greater than the median.

Horizontal

Horizontal means oriented in a position perpendicular to up and down, and therefore parallel to a flat surface. For instance, a floor or the horizon are both horizontal.

Horizontal Dilation

A horizontal dilation or stretch is a stretch in which a plane figure is distorted horizontally.

Horizontal Stretch

A horizontal stretch or dilation is a stretch in which a plane figure is distorted horizontally.

Hyperspace

Hyperspace refers to a space having dimensions n > 3.

Impossible Event

A impossible event is an event which has zero probability of occurring.

Integration

Integration is the process of computing or obtaining an integral, either a definite integral or an indefinite integral. A more archaic term for integration is quadrature.

Iota (Ι, ι)

Iota (Ι, ι) is the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet. It was derived from the Phoenician letter Yodh.

Jump Discontinuity

A jump discontinuity or step discontinuity is a discontinuity where the graph steps or jumps from one connected piece of the graph to another. It is a discontinuity where the limits from the left and right both exist but are not equal to each other.

Kappa (Κ, κ)

Kappa (Κ, κ) is the 10th letter of the Greek alphabet, used to represent the [k] sound in Ancient and Modern Greek.

Kite

A kite is a planar convex quadrilateral consisting of two adjacent sides of length a and the other two sides of length b that are congruent.

Lambda (Λ, λ)

Lambda (Λ, λ) is the 11th letter of the Greek alphabet, representing the sound /l/. In the system of Greek numerals lambda has a value of 30.

Leading Coefficient

A leading coefficient is the coefficient of a polynomials leading term. For instance, given the polynomial 8x5 + 3x2 - 3x + 7, the leading coefficient is 8.

Letter

A letter is an element of an alphabet and a collection of letters forms a word.

Mixed Product

Mixed product otherwise referred to as scalar triple product, triple scalar product and box product is a method of multiplying three 3-dimensional vectors, usually euclidean vectors in which the resulting product is a scalar.

Mu (Μ, μ)

Mu (Μ, μ) or my is the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 40.

Nu (Ν, ν)

Nu (Ν, ν) is the 13th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 50. It is derived from the ancient Phoenician language nun.

Obtuse Angle

An obtuse angle is an angle that has a measure greater than π2 radians or 90° degrees but less than π radians or 180° degrees.

Obtuse Triangle

An obtuse triangle (or obtuse angled triangle) is a triangle in which one of the interior angles is an obtuse angle (greater than π2 radians or 90 degrees but less than π radians or 180 degrees).

Omega (Ω, ω)

Omega (Ω, ω) is the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 800.

Omicron (Ο, ο)

Omicron (Ο, ο) is the 15th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 70.

Ordinate

In mathematics, the ordinate and abscissa are respectively the second and first coordinates of a point in a coordinate system. The ordinate is the second coordinate in an ordered pair and the abscissa is the first coordinate.

Pappus\'s Theorem

Pappus\'s theorem or the theorem of Pappus generally refer to several different theorems. They include Pappus\'s centroid theorem, the Pappus chain, Pappus\'s harmonic theorem, and Pappus\'s hexagon theorem.

Perimeter

A perimeter is a path that encompasses or surrounds a two-dimensional shape. The term perimeter refers either to the curve constituting the boundary of a lamina or else to the length of this boundary.

Phi (Φ, φ)

Phi (Φ, φ) is the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of traditional Greek numerals, phi has a value of 500 (φʹ) or 500,000 (͵φ).

Pi (Π, π)

Pi (Π, π) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, representing the sound [p]. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 80.

Psi (Ψ, ψ)

Psi (Ψ, ψ) is the 23rd letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a numeric value of 700.

Q1

The Q1 given a set of data, is a number for which 25% of the data is less than that number. The Q1 is the same as the median of the part of the data which is less than the median.

Q3

The Q3 given a set of data, is a number for which 75% of the data is less than that number. The Q3 is the same as the median of the part of the data which is greater than the median.

Rho (Ρ, ρ)

Rho (Ρ, ρ) is the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 100. It is derived from Phoenician letter res.

Scalar Triple Product

Scalar triple product otherwise referred to as triple scalar product, mixed product and box product is a method of multiplying three 3-dimensional vectors, usually euclidean vectors in which the resulting product is a scalar.

Sigma (Σ, σ)

Sigma (Σ, σ) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 200. In general mathematics, uppercase Σ is used as an operator for summation.

Similar

Two figures are said to be similar when all corresponding angles are equal and all distances are increased or decreased in the same ratio, called the ratio of magnification.

Step Discontinuity

A step discontinuity or jump discontinuity is a discontinuity where the graph steps or jumps from one connected piece of the graph to another.

Takeout Angle

A takeout angle is the angle cut out of a circular surface or piece of paper so that the surface can be rolled into a right circular cone.

Tau (Τ, τ)

Tau (Τ, τ) is the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 300.

Term

A term in mathematics is a variable, constant, or the result of acting on variables and constants by function symbols. In simpler terms, terms are parts of an expression or series separated by addition or subtraction signs, or the parts of a sequence separated by commas.

Terminal Side of an Angle

The terminal side of an angle θ drawn in angle standard position is the side which is not the initial side. In other terms it is the ray where measurement of an angle stops.

Theorem

A theorem is a non-self-evident statement that has been proven to be true, either on the basis of generally accepted statements such as axioms, postulates or on the basis of previously established theorems.

Theorem of Pappus

The theorem of Pappus or Pappus’s theorem generally refer to several different theorems. They include Pappus\'s centroid theorem, the Pappus chain, Pappus\'s harmonic theorem, and Pappus\'s hexagon theorem.

Theta (Θ, θ)

Theta (Θ, θ) is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, derived from the Phoenician letter Teth. In the system of Greek numerals it has the value 9.

Third Quartile

The third quartile given a set of data, is a number for which 75% of the data is less than that number. The third quartile is the same as the median of the part of the data which is greater than the median.

Transversal

A transversal is a line that passes through two lines in the same plane at two distinct points. Transversals play a role in establishing whether two other lines in the Euclidean plane are parallel.

Triangulation

Triangulation is a process in trigonometry and geometry of determining the direction and or distance to an object or point from two or more observation points.

Trinomial

A trinomial is a polynomial consisting of three terms or monomials which are not like terms. Examples of trinomials include: x2 + 4x - 6, 4x5 - 3x4 + x3, and a2b + 6x + c.

Triple

Triple means multiplying by three. It is important to note that with regard to some other terms and concepts like vectors and triple product this does not always hold true.

Triple Root

A triple root is a root of a polynomial equation with a multiplicity of 3. Triple root also refers to a zero of a polynomial function with multiplicity 3.

Triple Scalar Product

Triple scalar product otherwise referred to as scalar triple product, mixed product and box product is a method of multiplying three 3-dimensional vectors, usually euclidean vectors in which the resulting product is a scalar.

Trivial

Trivial is related to or being the mathematically most simple case. More generally, the term trivial is used to describe any result which requires little or no effort to derive or prove.

Truncated Cone or Pyramid

A truncated cone or pyramid is a cone or pyramid which has its apex cut off by an intersecting plane. The plane may be either oblique or parallel to the base.

Truncated Cylinder or Prism

A truncated cylinder or prism is a cylinder or prism which has one base cut off by an intersecting plane. The other base is unaffected by the truncation.

Truncating a Number

Truncating a number otherwise referred to just as truncation is a method of approximating a decimal number by dropping all decimal places past a certain point without rounding. In other terms truncation is limiting the number of digits right of the decimal point.

Truncation

Truncation otherwise referred to as truncating a number is a method of approximating a decimal number by dropping all decimal places past a certain point without rounding. In other terms truncation is limiting the number of digits right of the decimal point.

Twin Primes

A twin prime is a prime number that is either 2 less or 2 more than another prime number. For instance, either member of the twin prime pair 41 and 43.

Two Dimensional

Two dimensional or two dimensions is the property of a plane that indicates that motion can take place in two perpendicular directions.

Two Dimensional Space

Two dimensional space otherwise referred to as bi-dimensional space is a geometric setting in which two values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (a point).

Two Dimensions

Two dimensions or two dimensional is the property of a plane that indicates that motion can take place in two perpendicular directions.

Two Intercept Form For The Equation of a Line

Two intercept form for the equation of a line is an equation of a line where xa + yb = 1, where a is the x-intercept and b is the y-intercept.

Unbounded Set of Numbers

Unbounded set of numbers are a set of numbers that are not bounded. In other terms a set that lacks either a lower bound or an upper bound.

Uncountable

Uncountable otherwise known as uncountable set or uncountably infinite is an infinite set that contains too many elements to be countable.

Uncountable Set

Uncountable sets otherwise known as uncountable or uncountably infinite is an infinite set that contains too many elements to be countable.

Uncountably Infinite

Uncountably infinite otherwise known as uncountable or uncountable set is an infinite set that contains too many elements to be countable.

Undecagon

A undecagon otherwise referred to as a hendecagon, endecagon or 11-gon in geometry is an eleven sided polygon.

Undefined Slope

Undefined slope occurs when the slope is for a vertical line. A vertical line has an undefined slope because all points on the line have the same x-coordinate.

Underdetermined System of Equations

Underdetermined system of equations is a system of linear equations or a system of polynomial equations if there are fewer equations than variables (in contrast to an overdetermined system of equations, where there are more equations than variables).

Union

Union (denoted by ∪) in set theory, of a collection of sets is the set of all elements in the collection.

Unit Circle

The unit circle is a circle with a radius of 1 which is centered at the origin on the x-y plane.

Unit Circle Trig Definitions

Unit circle trig definitions are a set of definitions of the trigonometric functions sine, cosine, tangent, cosecant, secant, and cotangent all of which are derived from the unit circle.

Unit Vector

A unit vector is a vector with a length or magnitude of 1. Sometimes, the unit vector is also called a direction vector.

Upper Bound

The upper bound of a function C exists for a function f if the condition f(x) ≤ C for all x in its domain.

Upper Quartile

The upper quartile given a set of data, is a number for which 75% of the data is less than that number. The upper quartile is the same as the median of the part of the data which is greater than the median.

Upsilon (Υ, υ)

Upsilon (Υ, υ) or ypsilon is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals, Υʹ has a value of 400.

U-Substitution

U-Substitution also known as integration by substitution, or substitution method, is an integration method for evaluating integrals. Direct application of the fundamental theorem of calculus to find an antiderivative can be quite difficult, and integration by substitution can help simplify that task.

Variable

In mathematics, a variable is a symbol used to represent an arbitrary element that can change or that may take on different values.

Varignon Parallelogram of a Quadrilateral

A Varignon Parallelogram of a Quadrilateral is a parallelogram formed by connecting the midpoints of adjacent sides of a quadrilateral.

Vector

Vectors are a quantity, drawn as an arrow, with both direction and magnitude. For example, force and velocity are vectors. If a quantity has a magnitude but no direction, it is referred to as a scalar.

Vector Calculus

Vector calculus or vector analysis is the use of calculus (limits, derivatives, and integrals) with two or more independent variables, or two or more dependent variables.

Velocity

The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.

Venn Diagrams

A Venn diagram (also referred to as a primary diagram, set diagram or logic diagram) is a diagram that shows all possible logical relations between a finite collection of different sets.

Verify a Solution

Verifying or checking a solution is the process of making sure a solution is correct by making sure it satisfies any and all equations and or inequalities in a problem.

Vertex

A vertex is a special point of a mathematical object and is usually a location where two or more lines or edges meet. In other terms, a vertex is a corner point of a geometric figure.

Vertex of a Hyperbola

The vertices of a hyperbola are the points at which a hyperbola makes its sharpest turns. The vertices are on the major axis which is the line through the foci.

Vertex of an Ellipse

The vertices of an ellipse are the points at which an ellipse makes its sharpest turns. The vertices are on the major axis which is the line through the foci.

Vertex of a Parabola

The vertex of a parabola is the point at which a parabola makes its sharpest turn. The vertex is halfway between the directrix and the focus.

Vertical

Vertical means oriented in a straight up and down position. For instance, a wall is vertical.

Vertical Angles

Vertical angles are angles that are opposite one another at the intersection of two lines. In other terms, given two intersecting lines, the two nonadjacent angles with the same vertex are said to be vertical angles.

Vertical Compression

A vertical compression or shrink is a compression in which a plane figure is distorted vertically.

Vertical Dilation

A vertical dilation or stretch is a stretch in which a plane figure is distorted vertically.

Vertical Ellipse

A vertical ellipse is a conic section which is essentially a vertically stretched circle. In more formal terms an ellipse means for two given points, the foci, an ellipse is the locus of points such that the sum of the distance to each focus is constant.

Vertical Hyperbola

A vertical hyperbola is a conic section that can be thought of as an inside-out ellipse that opens upwards or downwards. In more formal terms a hyperbola means for two given points, the foci, a hyperbola is the locus of points such that the difference between the distances to each focus is constant.

Vertical Line Equation

The equation of a vertical line is x = k, where a represents the x-intercept.

Vertical Line Test

The vertical line test is a graphical method of determining whether a curve in the plane represents the graph of a function by visually examining the number of intersections of the curve with vertical lines.

Vertical Parabola

A vertical parabola is a u-shaped curve with certain properties. In particular a vertical parabola is a parabola that opens either upwards or downwards.

Vertical Reflection

A vertical reflection is a reflection in which a plane figure flips over vertically. A vertical reflection has a horizontal axis of reflection.

Vertical Shift

In geometry, a vertical shift otherwise known as vertical translation, is a translation of a geometric object in a direction parallel to the vertical axis of the Cartesian coordinate system.

Vertical Shrink

A vertical shrink or compression is a shrink in which a plane figure is distorted vertically.

Vertical Stretch

A vertical stretch or dilation is a stretch in which a plane figure is distorted vertically.

Vertical Translation

In geometry, a vertical translation otherwise known as vertical shift, is a translation of a geometric object in a direction parallel to the vertical axis of the Cartesian coordinate system.

Vertices of a Hyperbola

The vertices of a hyperbola are the points at which a hyperbola makes its sharpest turns. The vertices are on the major axis which is the line through the foci.

Vertices of an Ellipse

The vertices of an ellipse are the points at which an ellipse makes its sharpest turns. The vertices are on the major axis which is the line through the foci.

Vinculum

Vinculum is a horizontal line placed above multiple quantities to indicate that they form a unit. Oftentimes, it is the horizontal line drawn as part of a fraction or radical, such as a + ba - b or √ a + b .

Volume

Volume is the total amount of space enclosed or occupied in a solid. Volume generally has units of length and distance cubed (such as cm3, in3, m3 km3, etc.)

Volume by Parallel Cross Sections

The formula (Volume = ab A(x) dx, where A(x) is the formula for the area of parallel cross-sections over the entire length of the solid.) and image below gives the volume of a solid.

Washer

A washer or annulus is the region between two concentric circles which have different radii. The area of a washer = π (R2 − r2)

Washer Method

The washer method is a method for computing the volume of a solid of revolution that is hollow about its axis by integrating over the volumes of infinitesimal washer-shaped slices bounded by planes perpendicular to the axis of revolution.

Wavelength

In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave. In other terms the distance over which the wave\'s shape repeats.

Weighted Average

The weighted average or weighted arithmetic mean is similar to an ordinary arithmetic mean (the most common type of average), except that instead it is used in computing a kind of arithmetic mean of a set of numbers in which some elements of the set carry more importance (weight, frequency, or relative importance) than others.

Whole Numbers

Whole numbers are any numbers of the set of nonnegative integers. For instance any of the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.

Wild Point

For any point (P) on the boundary of an ordinary ball, find a neighborhood of P for which the intersection with the ball\'s boundary cuts the neighborhood into two sections, each homeomorphic to a ball.

Work

In physics, work is the product of force and displacement. A force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.

Xi (Ξ, ξ)

Xi (Ξ, ξ) is the 14th letter of the Greek Alphabet. In the system of Greek Numerals, it has a value of 60. Xi was derived from the Phoenician letter samekh.

X-Intercept

A point at which a graph intersects with the x-axis. The x-intercepts of a function must be real numbers, unlike roots and zeros of a function.

X-Y Plane

A plane formed by the x-axis and the y-axis.

X-Z Plane

A plane formed by the x-axis and the z-axis.

Y-Intercept

A point at which a graph intersects the y-axis.

Y-Z Plane

A plane formed by the y-axis and the z-axis.

Zero

Zero is a number which indicates no quantity, size, or magnitude. Zero is the only integer (and the only real number) that is neither a positive or negative value.

Zero Dimensions

Zero dimensions or zero dimensional is the property of a point that indicates no motion is possible without leaving that point. Stating a point has zero dimensions means that the only vector contained on the point is the zero vector.

Zero Matrix

A zero matrix is an m x n matrix where all of its elements are equal to zero and denoted by 0. Zero matrices are sometimes also referred to as null matrices.

Zero of a Function

A value of x which makes a function f(x) equal zero. In other terms a value of x such that f(x) = 0. A zero of a function may be a real or complex number.

Zero Slope

A slope of zero means that the line is a horizontal line. A horizontal line has slope of 0 because all of its points have the same y-coordinate.

Zero Vector

A vector with a magnitude of zero. Denoted 0, it is a vector of length 0, and thus has all components equal to zero.

Zeta (Ζ, ζ)

Zeta (Ζ, ζ) is the sixth letter of the Greek Alphabet. In the system of of Greek Numerals, it has a value of 7. It was derived from the Phoenician letter zayin.

Z-Intercept

A point at which a graph intersects the z-axis.

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