Home / All Definitions / Numbers & Symbols / Trigonometry / Gamma (Γ, γ) Definition

# Gamma (Γ, γ) Definition Gamma (Γ, γ) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 3. In Ancient Greek, gámma or γάμμα is the letter gamma represented a voiced velar stop /ɡ/. In Modern Greek, this letter represents either a voiced velar fricative or a voiced palatal fricative. In the International Phonetic Alphabet and other modern Latin-alphabet based phonetic notations, it represents the voiced velar fricative.

## Usage in Mathematics & Science

The uppercase Gamma (Γ) is used for:

• In mathematics, the gamma function (usually written as Γ -function) is an extension of the factorial to complex numbers.

• In mathematics, the upper incomplete gamma function.

• The Christoffel symbols in differential geometry.

• In probability theory and statistics, the gamma distribution is a two-parameter family of continuous probability distributions.

• Circulation in fluid mechanics.

• As reflection coefficient in physics and electrical engineering.

• The tape alphabet of a Turing machine.

• The Feferman–Schütte ordinal Γ0

• One of the Greeks in mathematical finance.

The lowercase Gamma (γ) is used for:

• Chromatic number of in graph theory.

• Gamma radiation in nuclear physics.

• The photon, the elementary particle of light and other electromagnetic radiation.

• Surface energy in materials science.

• The Lorentz factor in the theory of relativity.

• In mathematics, the lower incomplete gamma function.

• The heat capacity ratio Cp/Cv in thermodynamics.

• The activity coefficient in thermodynamics.

• The gyromagnetic ratio in electromagnetism.

• Gamma waves in neuroscience.

• Gamma motor neurons in neuroscience.

• A non-SI metric unit of measure of mass equal to one microgram (1 μg). This always-rare use is currently deprecated.

• A non-SI unit of measure of magnetic flux density, sometimes used in geophysics, equal to 1 nanotesla (nT).

• The power by which the luminance of an image is increased in gamma correction.

• The Euler–Mascheroni constant.

• In civil and mechanical engineering:

• Specific weight

• The shear rate of a fluid is represented by a lowercase gamma with a dot above it:

• Austenite (also known as γ-iron), a metallic non-magnetic allotrope or solid solution of iron.

• The gamma carbon, the third carbon attached to a functional group in organic chemistry and biochemistry; see Alpha and beta carbon.

• The lowercase Latin gamma γ can also be used in contexts (such as chemical or molecule nomenclature) where gamma must not be confused with the letter y, which can occur in some computer typefaces.

## Greek Alphabet

The letters of the Ancient Greek Alphabet, which are frequently utilized in math and science:

 Greek Alphabet Symbol Letter Symbol Letter Uppercase Lowercase Uppercase Lowercase Α α Alpha Ν ν Nu Β β Beta Ξ ξ Xi Γ γ Gamma Ο ο Omicron Δ δ Delta Π π Pi Ε ε Epsilon Ρ ρ Rho Ζ ζ Zeta Σ σ Sigma Η η Eta Τ τ Tau Θ θ Theta Υ υ Upsilon Ι ι Iota Φ φ Phi Κ κ Kappa Χ χ Chi Λ λ Lambda Ψ ψ Psi Μ μ Mu Ω ω Omega

### Sources

“Gamma.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 6 Apr. 2020, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma.

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